# Lee–Yang theorem

Lee–Yang theorem In statistical mechanics, the Lee–Yang theorem states that if partition functions of certain models in statistical field theory with ferromagnetic interactions are considered as functions of an external field, then all zeros are purely imaginary (or on the unit circle after a change of variable). The first version was proved for the Ising model by T. D. Lee and C. N. Yang (1952) (Lee & Yang 1952). Their result was later extended to more general models by several people. Asano in 1970 extended the Lee–Yang theorem to the Heisenberg model and provided a simpler proof using Asano contractions. Simon & Griffiths (1973) extended the Lee–Yang theorem to certain continuous probability distributions by approximating them by a superposition of Ising models. Newman (1974) gave a general theorem stating roughly that the Lee–Yang theorem holds for a ferromagnetic interaction provided it holds for zero interaction. Lieb & Sokal (1981) generalized Newman's result from measures on R to measures on higher-dimensional Euclidean space.

There has been some speculation about a relationship between the Lee–Yang theorem and the Riemann hypothesis about the Riemann zeta function; see (Knauf 1999).

Contents 1 Statement 1.1 Preliminaries 1.2 Theorem 2 Examples 3 See also 4 References Statement Preliminaries Along the formalization in Newman (1974) the Hamiltonian is given by {displaystyle H=-sum J_{jk}S_{j}S_{k}-sum z_{j}S_{j}} where Sj's are spin variables, zj external field. The system is said to be ferromagnetic if all the coefficients in the interaction term Jjk are non-negative reals.

The partition function is given by {displaystyle Z=int e^{-H}dmu _{1}(S_{1})cdots dmu _{N}(S_{N})} where each dμj is an even measure on the reals R decreasing at infinity so fast that all Gaussian functions are integrable, i.e.

{displaystyle int e^{bS^{2}}d|mu _{j}(S)|

{displaystyle Z({z_{j}})neq 0,,forall z_{j}in mathbb {H} _{+}} In particular if all the numbers zj are equal to some number z, then all zeros of the partition function (considered as a function of z) are imaginary.

In the original Ising model case considered by Lee and Yang, the measures all have support on the 2 point set −1, 1, so the partition function can be considered a function of the variable ρ = eπz. With this change of variable the Lee–Yang theorem says that all zeros ρ lie on the unit circle.

Examples Some examples of measure with the Lee–Yang property are: The measure of the Ising model, which has support consisting of two points (usually 1 and −1) each with weight 1/2. This is the original case considered by Lee and Yang. The distribution of spin n/2, whose support has n+1 equally spaced points, each of weight 1/(n + 1). This is a generalization of the Ising model case. The density of measure uniformly distributed between −1 and 1. The density {displaystyle exp(-lambda cosh(S)),dS} The density {displaystyle exp(-lambda S^{4}-bS^{2}),dS} for positive λ and real b. This corresponds to the (φ4)2 Euclidean quantum field theory. The density {displaystyle exp(-lambda S^{6}-aS^{4}-bS^{2}),dS} for positive λ does not always have the Lee-Yang property. If dμ has the Lee-Yang property, so does exp(bS2) dμ for any positive b. If dμ has the Lee-Yang property, so does Q(S) dμ for any even polynomial Q all of whose zeros are imaginary. The convolution of two measures with the Lee-Yang property also has the Lee-Yang property. See also Lee–Yang theory References Itzykson, Claude; Drouffe, Jean-Michel (1989), Statistical field theory. Vol. 1, Cambridge Monographs on Mathematical Physics, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-34058-8, MR 1175176 Knauf, Andreas (1999), "Number theory, dynamical systems and statistical mechanics", Reviews in Mathematical Physics, 11 (8): 1027–1060, CiteSeerX 10.1.1.184.8685, doi:10.1142/S0129055X99000325, ISSN 0129-055X, MR 1714352 Lee, T. D.; Yang, C. N. (1952), "Statistical Theory of Equations of State and Phase Transitions. II. Lattice Gas and Ising Model", Physical Review, 87 (3): 410–419, doi:10.1103/PhysRev.87.410, ISSN 0031-9007 Lieb, Elliott H.; Sokal, Alan D. (1981), "A general Lee-Yang theorem for one-component and multicomponent ferromagnets", Communications in Mathematical Physics, 80 (2): 153–179, doi:10.1007/BF01213009, ISSN 0010-3616, MR 0623156 Newman, Charles M. (1974), "Zeros of the partition function for generalized Ising systems", Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics, 27 (2): 143–159, doi:10.1002/cpa.3160270203, ISSN 0010-3640, MR 0484184 Simon, Barry; Griffiths, Robert B. (1973), "The (φ4)2 field theory as a classical Ising model", Communications in Mathematical Physics, 33 (2): 145–164, CiteSeerX 10.1.1.210.9639, doi:10.1007/BF01645626, ISSN 0010-3616, MR 0428998 Yang, C. N.; Lee, T. D. (1952), "Statistical Theory of Equations of State and Phase Transitions. I. Theory of Condensation", Physical Review, 87 (3): 404–409, doi:10.1103/PhysRev.87.404, ISSN 0031-9007 Categories: Statistical mechanics theorems

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