Hinge theorem

Hinge theorem In geometry, the hinge theorem (sometimes called the open mouth theorem) states that if two sides of one triangle are congruent to two sides of another triangle, and the included angle of the first is larger than the included angle of the second, then the third side of the first triangle is longer than the third side of the second triangle.[1] This theorem is given as Proposition 24 in Book I of Euclid's Elements.

Scope and generalizations The hinge theorem holds in Euclidean spaces and more generally in simply connected non-positively curved space forms.

It can be also extended from plane Euclidean geometry to higher dimension Euclidean spaces (e.g., to tetrahedra and more generally to simplices), as has been done for orthocentric tetrahedra (i.e., tetrahedra in which altitudes are concurrent)[2] and more generally for orthocentric simplices (i.e., simplices in which altitudes are concurrent).[3] Converse The converse of the hinge theorem is also true: If the two sides of one triangle are congruent to two sides of another triangle, and the third side of the first triangle is greater than the third side of the second triangle, then the included angle of the first triangle is larger than the included angle of the second triangle.

In some textbooks, the theorem and its converse are written as the SAS Inequality Theorem and the SSS Inequality Theorem respectively.

References ^ Moise, Edwin; Downs, Jr., Floyd (1991). Geometry. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. p. 233. ISBN 0201253356. ^ Abu-Saymeh, Sadi; Mowaffaq Hajja; Mostafa Hayajneh (2012). "The open mouth theorem, or the scissors lemma, for orthocentric tetrahedra". Journal of Geometry. 103 (1): 1–16. doi:10.1007/s00022-012-0116-4. ^ Hajja, Mowaffaq; Mostafa Hayajneh (August 1, 2012). "The open mouth theorem in higher dimensions". Linear Algebra and Its Applications. 437 (3): 1057–1069. doi:10.1016/j.laa.2012.03.012. hide vte Ancient Greek and Hellenistic mathematics (Euclidean geometry) Mathematicians (timeline) AnaxagorasAnthemiusArchytasAristaeus the ElderAristarchusApolloniusArchimedesAutolycusBionBrysonCallippusCarpusChrysippusCleomedesCononCtesibiusDemocritusDicaearchusDioclesDiophantusDinostratusDionysodorusDomninusEratosthenesEudemusEuclidEudoxusEutociusGeminusHeliodorusHeronHipparchusHippasusHippiasHippocratesHypatiaHypsiclesIsidore of MiletusLeonMarinusMenaechmusMenelausMetrodorusNicomachusNicomedesNicotelesOenopidesPappusPerseusPhilolausPhilonPhilonidesPorphyryPosidoniusProclusPtolemyPythagorasSerenus SimpliciusSosigenesSporusThalesTheaetetusTheanoTheodorusTheodosiusTheon of AlexandriaTheon of SmyrnaThymaridasXenocratesZeno of EleaZeno of SidonZenodorus Treatises AlmagestArchimedes PalimpsestArithmeticaConics (Apollonius)CatoptricsData (Euclid)Elements (Euclid)Measurement of a CircleOn Conoids and SpheroidsOn the Sizes and Distances (Aristarchus)On Sizes and Distances (Hipparchus)On the Moving Sphere (Autolycus)Euclid's OpticsOn SpiralsOn the Sphere and CylinderOstomachionPlanisphaeriumSphaericsThe Quadrature of the ParabolaThe Sand Reckoner Problems Constructible numbers Angle trisectionDoubling the cubeSquaring the circleProblem of Apollonius Concepts and definitions Angle CentralInscribedChordCircles of Apollonius Apollonian circlesApollonian gasketCircumscribed circleCommensurabilityDiophantine equationDoctrine of proportionalityGolden ratioGreek numeralsIncircle and excircles of a triangleMethod of exhaustionParallel postulatePlatonic solidLune of HippocratesQuadratrix of HippiasRegular polygonStraightedge and compass constructionTriangle center Results In Elements Angle bisector theoremExterior angle theoremEuclidean algorithmEuclid's theoremGeometric mean theoremGreek geometric algebraHinge theoremInscribed angle theoremIntercept theoremIntersecting chords theoremIntersecting secants theoremLaw of cosinesPons asinorumPythagorean theoremTangent-secant theoremThales's theoremTheorem of the gnomon Apollonius Apollonius's theorem Other Aristarchus's inequalityCrossbar theoremHeron's formulaIrrational numbersLaw of sinesMenelaus's theoremPappus's area theoremProblem II.8 of ArithmeticaPtolemy's inequalityPtolemy's table of chordsPtolemy's theoremSpiral of Theodorus Centers CyreneLibrary of AlexandriaPlatonic Academy Other Ancient Greek astronomyGreek numeralsLatin translations of the 12th centuryNeusis construction  Ancient Greece portal •  Mathematics portal Categories: Elementary geometryTheorems about triangles

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