# Extension by new constant and function names Suppose that a closed formula {displaystyle exists x_{1}ldots exists x_{m},varphi (x_{1},ldots ,x_{m})} is a theorem of a first-order theory {displaystyle T} . Let {displaystyle T_{1}} be a theory obtained from {displaystyle T} by extending its language with new constants {displaystyle a_{1},ldots ,a_{m}} and adding a new axiom {displaystyle varphi (a_{1},ldots ,a_{m})} .[citation needed] Then {displaystyle T_{1}} is a conservative extension of {displaystyle T} , which means that the theory {displaystyle T_{1}} has the same set of theorems in the original language (i.e., without constants {displaystyle a_{i}} ) as the theory {displaystyle T} .

Such a theory can also be conservatively extended by introducing a new functional symbol: Suppose that a closed formula {displaystyle forall {vec {x}},exists y,!,varphi (y,{vec {x}})} is a theorem of a first-order theory {displaystyle T} , where we denote {displaystyle {vec {x}}:=(x_{1},ldots ,x_{n})} . Let {displaystyle T_{1}} be a theory obtained from {displaystyle T} by extending its language with a new functional symbol {displaystyle f} (of arity {displaystyle n} ) and adding a new axiom {displaystyle forall {vec {x}},varphi (f({vec {x}}),{vec {x}})} . Then {displaystyle T_{1}} is a conservative extension of {displaystyle T} , i.e. the theories {displaystyle T} and {displaystyle T_{1}} prove the same theorems not involving the functional symbol {displaystyle f} ).

Shoenfield states the theorem in the form for a new function name, and constants are the same as functions of zero arguments. In formal systems that admit ordered tuples, extension by multiple constants as shown here can be accomplished by addition of a new constant tuple and the new constant names having the values of elements of the tuple.

See also Conservative extension Extension by definition References ^ Shoenfield, Joseph (1967). Mathematical Logic. Addison-Wesley. pp. 55–56. show vte Mathematical logic This logic-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

This mathematical logic-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

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