Egorov's theorem

Egorov's theorem In measure theory, an area of mathematics, Egorov's theorem establishes a condition for the uniform convergence of a pointwise convergent sequence of measurable functions. It is also named Severini–Egoroff theorem or Severini–Egorov theorem, after Carlo Severini, an Italian mathematician, and Dmitri Egorov, a Russian physicist and geometer, who published independent proofs respectively in 1910 and 1911.

Egorov's theorem can be used along with compactly supported continuous functions to prove Lusin's theorem for integrable functions.

Contents 1 Historical note 2 Formal statement and proof 2.1 Statement 2.2 Discussion of assumptions and a counterexample 2.3 Proof 3 Generalizations 3.1 Luzin's version 3.1.1 Statement 3.1.2 Proof 3.2 Korovkin's version 3.2.1 Statement 3.2.2 Proof 4 Notes 5 References 5.1 Historical references 5.2 Scientific references 6 External links Historical note The first proof of the theorem was given by Carlo Severini in 1910:[1][2] he used the result as a tool in his research on series of orthogonal functions. His work remained apparently unnoticed outside Italy, probably due to the fact that it is written in Italian, appeared in a scientific journal with limited diffusion and was considered only as a means to obtain other theorems. A year later Dmitri Egorov published his independently proved results,[3] and the theorem became widely known under his name: however, it is not uncommon to find references to this theorem as the Severini–Egoroff theorem. The first mathematicians to prove independently the theorem in the nowadays common abstract measure space setting were Frigyes Riesz (1922, 1928), and in Wacław Sierpiński (1928):[4] an earlier generalization is due to Nikolai Luzin, who succeeded in slightly relaxing the requirement of finiteness of measure of the domain of convergence of the pointwise converging functions in the ample paper (Luzin 1916).[5] Further generalizations were given much later by Pavel Korovkin, in the paper (Korovkin 1947), and by Gabriel Mokobodzki in the paper (Mokobodzki 1970).

Formal statement and proof Statement Let (fn) be a sequence of M-valued measurable functions, where M is a separable metric space, on some measure space (X,Σ,μ), and suppose there is a measurable subset A ⊆ X, with finite μ-measure, such that (fn) converges μ-almost everywhere on A to a limit function f. The following result holds: for every ε > 0, there exists a measurable subset B of A such that μ(B) < ε, and (fn) converges to f uniformly on A  B. Here, μ(B) denotes the μ-measure of B. In words, the theorem says that pointwise convergence almost everywhere on A implies the apparently much stronger uniform convergence everywhere except on some subset B of arbitrarily small measure. This type of convergence is also called almost uniform convergence. Discussion of assumptions and a counterexample The hypothesis μ(A) < ∞ is necessary. To see this, it is simple to construct a counterexample when μ is the Lebesgue measure: consider the sequence of real-valued indicator functions {displaystyle f_{n}(x)=1_{[n,n+1]}(x),qquad nin mathbb {N} , xin mathbb {R} ,} defined on the real line. This sequence converges pointwise to the zero function everywhere but does not converge uniformly on {displaystyle mathbb {R} setminus B} for any set B of finite measure: a counterexample in the general {displaystyle n} -dimensional real vector space {displaystyle mathbb {R} ^{n}} can be constructed as shown by Cafiero (1959, p. 302). The separability of the metric space is needed to make sure that for M-valued, measurable functions f and g, the distance d(f(x), g(x)) is again a measurable real-valued function of x. Proof Fix {displaystyle varepsilon >0} . For natural numbers n and k, define the set En,k by the union {displaystyle E_{n,k}=bigcup _{mgeq n}left{xin A,{Big |},|f_{m}(x)-f(x)|geq {frac {1}{k}}right}.} These sets get smaller as n increases, meaning that En+1,k is always a subset of En,k, because the first union involves fewer sets. A point x, for which the sequence (fm(x)) converges to f(x), cannot be in every En,k for a fixed k, because fm(x) has to stay closer to f(x) than 1/k eventually. Hence by the assumption of μ-almost everywhere pointwise convergence on A, {displaystyle mu left(bigcap _{nin mathbb {N} }E_{n,k}right)=0} for every k. Since A is of finite measure, we have continuity from above; hence there exists, for each k, some natural number nk such that {displaystyle mu (E_{n_{k},k})<{frac {varepsilon }{2^{k}}}.} For x in this set we consider the speed of approach into the 1/k-neighbourhood of f(x) as too slow. Define {displaystyle B=bigcup _{kin mathbb {N} }E_{n_{k},k}} as the set of all those points x in A, for which the speed of approach into at least one of these 1/k-neighbourhoods of f(x) is too slow. On the set difference {displaystyle Asetminus B} we therefore have uniform convergence. Explicitly, for any {displaystyle epsilon } , let {displaystyle {frac {1}{k}}n_{k}} , we have {displaystyle |f_{n}-f|

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