# Descartes' theorem

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In geometria, Descartes' theorem states that for every four kissing, or mutually tangent, circles, the radii of the circles satisfy a certain quadratic equation. By solving this equation, one can construct a fourth circle tangent to three given, mutually tangent circles. The theorem is named after René Descartes, who stated it in 1643.

Contenuti 1 Storia 2 Definition of curvature 3 Casi speciali 4 Complex Descartes theorem 5 generalizzazioni 6 Guarda anche 7 Appunti 8 External links History Geometrical problems involving tangent circles have been pondered for millennia. In ancient Greece of the third century BC, Apollonius of Perga devoted an entire book to the topic, De tactionibus [On tangencies]. It has been lost, and is known only through mentions of it in other works.[1] René Descartes discussed the problem briefly in 1643, in a letter to Princess Elisabeth of the Palatinate. He came up with the equation describing the relation between the radii, or curvatures, of four pairwise tangent circles. This result became known as Descartes' theorem.[2] This result was rediscovered in 1826 by Jakob Steiner,[3] in 1842 by Philip Beecroft,[4] e dentro 1936 by Frederick Soddy. The kissing circles in this problem are sometimes known as Soddy circles, perhaps because Soddy chose to publish his version of the theorem in the form of a poem, titled The Kiss Precise. Soddy also extended the theorem to spheres;[5] Thorold Gosset extended the theorem to arbitrary dimensions.[6] Definition of curvature Kissing circles. Given three mutually tangent circles (Nero), what radius can a fourth tangent circle have? There are in general two possible answers (rosso).

Descartes' theorem is most easily stated in terms of the circles' curvatures. The curvature (or bend) of a circle is defined as {displaystyle k=pm 1/r} , dove {stile di visualizzazione r} is its radius. The larger a circle, the smaller is the magnitude of its curvature, e viceversa.

The sign in {displaystyle k=pm 1/r} (represented by the {displaystyle pm } simbolo) is positive for a circle that is externally tangent to the other circles, like the three black circles in the image. For an internally tangent circle like the large red circle, that circumscribes the other circles, the sign is negative. If a straight line is considered a degenerate circle with zero curvature (and thus infinite radius), Descartes' theorem also applies to a line and three circles that are all three mutually tangent.

For four circles that are tangent to each other at six distinct points, with curvatures {stile di visualizzazione k_{io}} per {displaystyle i=1,dots 4} , Descartes' theorem says: {stile di visualizzazione (K_{1}+K_{2}+K_{3}+K_{4})^{2}=2,(K_{1}^{2}+K_{2}^{2}+K_{3}^{2}+K_{4}^{2}).} (1) When trying to find the radius of a fourth circle tangent to three given kissing circles, the equation is best rewritten as: {stile di visualizzazione k_{4}=k_{1}+K_{2}+K_{3}pm 2{mq {K_{1}K_{2}+K_{2}K_{3}+K_{3}K_{1}}}.} (2) The ± sign reflects the fact that there are in general two solutions to this equation, and two tangent circles (or degenerate straight lines) to any triple of tangent circles. Problem-specific criteria may favor one of these two solutions over the other in any given problem.

Special cases One of the circles is replaced by a straight line of zero curvature. Descartes' theorem still applies. Qui, as all three circles are tangent to each other at the same point, Descartes' theorem does not apply.

If one of the three circles is replaced by a straight line, then one ki, say k3, is zero and drops out of equation (1). Equation (2) then becomes much simpler: {stile di visualizzazione k_{4}=k_{1}+K_{2}pm 2{mq {K_{1}K_{2}}}.} (3) If two circles are replaced by lines, the tangency between the two replaced circles becomes a parallelism between their two replacement lines. For all four curves to remain mutually tangent, the other two circles must be congruent. In questo caso, with k2 = k3 = 0, equation (2) is reduced to the trivial {displaystyle displaystyle k_{4}=k_{1}.} It is not possible to replace three circles by lines, as it is not possible for three lines and one circle to be mutually tangent. Descartes' theorem does not apply when all four circles are tangent to each other at the same point.

Another special case is when the ki are squares, {stile di visualizzazione (v^{2}+x^{2}+si^{2}+z^{2})^{2}=2,(v^{4}+x^{4}+si^{4}+z^{4})} Euler showed that this is equivalent to the simultaneous triplet of Pythagorean triples, {stile di visualizzazione (2vx)^{2}+(2yz)^{2}=,(v^{2}+x^{2}-si^{2}-z^{2})^{2}} {stile di visualizzazione (2vy)^{2}+(2xz)^{2}=,(v^{2}-x^{2}+si^{2}-z^{2})^{2}} {stile di visualizzazione (2vz)^{2}+(2xy)^{2}=,(v^{2}-x^{2}-si^{2}+z^{2})^{2}} and can be given a parametric solution. When the minus sign of a curvature is chosen, {stile di visualizzazione (-v^{2}+x^{2}+si^{2}+z^{2})^{2}=2,(v^{4}+x^{4}+si^{4}+z^{4})} this can be solved[7] come, {stile di visualizzazione {inizio{allineato}{[}&v,X,y,z]\[6pt]={}{Grande [}&2(ab-cd)(ab+cd), (un^{2}+b^{2}+c^{2}+d^{2})(un^{2}-b^{2}+c^{2}-d^{2}),\&qquad 2(ac-bd)(un^{2}+c^{2}), 2(ac-bd)(b^{2}+d^{2}){Grande ]}fine{allineato}}} dove {stile di visualizzazione a^{4}+b^{4}=,c^{4}+d^{4}} parametric solutions of which are well-known.

Complex Descartes theorem To determine a circle completely, not only its radius (or curvature), but also its center must be known. The relevant equation is expressed most clearly if the coordinates (X, y) are interpreted as a complex number z = x + iy. The equation then looks similar to Descartes' theorem and is therefore called the complex Descartes theorem.

Given four circles with curvatures ki and centers zi (for i = 1...4), the following equality holds in addition to equation (1): {stile di visualizzazione (K_{1}z_{1}+K_{2}z_{2}+K_{3}z_{3}+K_{4}z_{4})^{2}=2,(K_{1}^{2}z_{1}^{2}+K_{2}^{2}z_{2}^{2}+K_{3}^{2}z_{3}^{2}+K_{4}^{2}z_{4}^{2}).} (4) Once k4 has been found using equation (2), one may proceed to calculate z4 by rewriting equation (4) to a form similar to equation (2): {stile di visualizzazione z_{4}={frac {z_{1}K_{1}+z_{2}K_{2}+z_{3}K_{3}pm 2{mq {K_{1}K_{2}z_{1}z_{2}+K_{2}K_{3}z_{2}z_{3}+K_{1}K_{3}z_{1}z_{3}}}}{K_{4}}}.} Ancora, in generale, there are two solutions for z4, corresponding to the two solutions for k4. Note that the plus/minus sign in the above formula for z does not necessarily correspond to the plus/minus sign in the formula for k.

Generalizations The generalization to n dimensions is sometimes referred to as the Soddy–Gosset theorem, even though it was shown by R. Lachlan in 1886. In n-dimensional Euclidean space, the maximum number of mutually tangent (n - 1)-spheres is n + 2. Per esempio, in 3-dimensional space, five spheres can be mutually tangent. The curvatures of the hyperspheres satisfy {stile di visualizzazione a sinistra(somma _{io=1}^{n+2}K_{io}Giusto)^{2}=n,somma _{io=1}^{n+2}K_{io}^{2}} with the case ki = 0 corresponding to a flat hyperplane, in exact analogy to the 2-dimensional version of the theorem.

Although there is no 3-dimensional analogue of the complex numbers, the relationship between the positions of the centers can be re-expressed as a matrix equation, which also generalizes to n dimensions.[8] See also Ford circles Apollonian gasket Problem of Apollonius ("circle tangencies") Soddy's hexlet Tangent lines to circles Isoperimetric point Notes ^ Court, N. UN. (ottobre 1961), "The problem of Apollonius", L'insegnante di matematica, 54 (6): 444–452, JSTOR 27956431 ^ Shapiro, Lisa (2007), The Correspondence between Princess Elisabeth of Bohemia and René Descartes, The Other Voice in Early Modern Europe, Stampa dell'Università di Chicago, pp. 37–39, 73–77, ISBN 978-0-226-20444-4 ^ Steiner, Jakob (Gennaio 1826), "Fortsetzung der geometrischen Betrachtungen (Heft 2, S. 161)", Diario di matematica pura e applicata, 1826 (1): 252–288, doi:10.1515/crll.1826.1.252 ^ Beecroft, Philip (1842), "Properties of circles in mutual contact", The Lady's and Gentleman's Diary (139): 91–96 ^ Soddy, F. (Giugno 1936), "The Kiss Precise", Natura, 137 (3477): 1021, doi:10.1038/1371021a0 ^ "The Kiss Precise", Natura, 139 (3506): 62, Gennaio 1937, doi:10.1038/139062a0 ^ A Collection of Algebraic Identities: Sums of Three or More 4th Powers ^ Lagarias, Jeffrey C.; Mallows, Colin L.; Wilks, Allan R. (2002), "Beyond the Descartes circle theorem", Il mensile matematico americano, 109 (4): 338–361, arXiv:math/0101066, doi:10.2307/2695498, JSTOR 2695498, SIG 1903421 External links Interactive applet demonstrating four mutually tangent circles at cut-the-knot The Kiss Precise Categories: Euclidean plane geometryTheorems about circlesAnalytic geometryCircle packing

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