# Closed graph theorem

Closed graph theorem This article is about closed graph theorems in general topology. For the closed graph theorem in functional analysis, see Closed graph theorem (functional analysis). The graph of the cubic function {displaystyle f(x)=x^{3}-9x} on the interval {displaystyle [-4,4]} is closed because the function is continuous. The graph of the Heaviside function on {displaystyle [-2,2]} is not closed, because the function is not continuous.

In mathematics, the closed graph theorem may refer to one of several basic results characterizing continuous functions in terms of their graphs. Each gives conditions when functions with closed graphs are necessarily continuous.

Contents 1 Graphs and maps with closed graphs 1.1 Examples of continuous maps that do not have a closed graph 2 Closed graph theorem in point-set topology 2.1 For set-valued functions 3 In functional analysis 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Bibliography Graphs and maps with closed graphs Main article: Closed graph If {displaystyle f:Xto Y} is a map between topological spaces then the graph of {displaystyle f} is the set {displaystyle operatorname {Gr} f:={(x,f(x)):xin X}} or equivalently, {displaystyle operatorname {Gr} f:={(x,y)in Xtimes Y_y=f(x)}} It is said that the graph of {displaystyle f} is closed if {displaystyle operatorname {Gr} f} is a closed subset of {displaystyle Xtimes Y} (with the product topology).

Any continuous function into a Hausdorff space has a closed graph.

Any linear map, {displaystyle L:Xto Y,} between two topological vector spaces whose topologies are (Cauchy) complete with respect to translation invariant metrics, and if in addition (1a) {displaystyle L} is sequentially continuous in the sense of the product topology, then the map {displaystyle L} is continuous and its graph, Gr L, is necessarily closed. Conversely, if {displaystyle L} is such a linear map with, in place of (1a), the graph of {displaystyle L} is (1b) known to be closed in the Cartesian product space {displaystyle Xtimes Y} , then {displaystyle L} is continuous and therefore necessarily sequentially continuous.[1] Examples of continuous maps that do not have a closed graph If {displaystyle X} is any space then the identity map {displaystyle operatorname {Id} :Xto X} is continuous but its graph, which is the diagonal {displaystyle operatorname {Gr} operatorname {Id} :={(x,x):xin X},} , is closed in {displaystyle Xtimes X} if and only if {displaystyle X} is Hausdorff.[2] In particular, if {displaystyle X} is not Hausdorff then {displaystyle operatorname {Id} :Xto X} is continuous but does not have a closed graph.

Let {displaystyle X} denote the real numbers {displaystyle mathbb {R} } with the usual Euclidean topology and let {displaystyle Y} denote {displaystyle mathbb {R} } with the indiscrete topology (where note that {displaystyle Y} is not Hausdorff and that every function valued in {displaystyle Y} is continuous). Let {displaystyle f:Xto Y} be defined by {displaystyle f(0)=1} and {displaystyle f(x)=0} for all {displaystyle xneq 0} . Then {displaystyle f:Xto Y} is continuous but its graph is not closed in {displaystyle Xtimes Y} .[3] Closed graph theorem in point-set topology In point-set topology, the closed graph theorem states the following: Closed graph theorem[4] — If {displaystyle f:Xto Y} is a map from a topological space {displaystyle X} into a Hausdorff space {displaystyle Y,} then the graph of {displaystyle f} is closed if {displaystyle f:Xto Y} is continuous. The converse is true when {displaystyle Y} is compact. (Note that compactness and Hausdorffness do not imply each other.) Proof First part is essentially by definition.

Second part: For any open {displaystyle Vsubset Y} , we check {displaystyle f^{-1}(V)} is open. So take any {displaystyle xin f^{-1}(V)} , we construct some open neighborhood {displaystyle U} of {displaystyle x} , such that {displaystyle f(U)subset V} .

Since the graph of {displaystyle f} is closed, for every point {displaystyle (x,y')} on the "vertical line at x", with {displaystyle y'neq f(x)} , draw an open rectangle {displaystyle U_{y'}times V_{y'}} disjoint from the graph of {displaystyle f} . These open rectangles, when projected to the y-axis, cover the y-axis except at {displaystyle f(x)} , so add one more set {displaystyle V} .

Naively attempting to take {displaystyle U:=bigcap _{y'neq f(x)}U_{y'}} would construct a set containing {displaystyle x} , but it is not guaranteed to be open, so we use compactness here.

Since {displaystyle Y} is compact, we can take a finite open covering of {displaystyle Y} as {displaystyle {V,V_{y'_{1}},...,V_{y'_{n}}}} .

Now take {displaystyle U:=bigcap _{i=1}^{n}U_{y'_{i}}} . It is an open neighborhood of {displaystyle x} , since it is merely a finite intersection. We claim this is the open neighborhood of {displaystyle U} that we want.

Suppose not, then there is some unruly {displaystyle x'in U} such that {displaystyle f(x')not in V} , then that would imply {displaystyle f(x')in V_{y'_{i}}} for some {displaystyle i} by open covering, but then {displaystyle (x',f(x'))in Utimes V_{y'_{i}}subset U_{y'_{i}}times V_{y'_{i}}} , a contradiction since it is supposed to be disjoint from the graph of {displaystyle f} .

Non-Hausdorff spaces are rarely seen, but non-compact spaces are common. An example of non-compact {displaystyle Y} is the real line, which allows the discontinuous function with closed graph {displaystyle f(x)={begin{cases}{frac {1}{x}}{text{ if }}xneq 0,\0{text{ else}}end{cases}}} .

For set-valued functions Closed graph theorem for set-valued functions[5] — For a Hausdorff compact range space {displaystyle Y} , a set-valued function {displaystyle F:Xto 2^{Y}} has a closed graph if and only if it is upper hemicontinuous and F(x) is a closed set for all {displaystyle xin X} .

In functional analysis Main article: Closed graph theorem (functional analysis) If {displaystyle T:Xto Y} is a linear operator between topological vector spaces (TVSs) then we say that {displaystyle T} is a closed operator if the graph of {displaystyle T} is closed in {displaystyle Xtimes Y} when {displaystyle Xtimes Y} is endowed with the product topology.

The closed graph theorem is an important result in functional analysis that guarantees that a closed linear operator is continuous under certain conditions. The original result has been generalized many times. A well known version of the closed graph theorems is the following.

Theorem[6][7] — A linear map between two F-spaces (e.g. Banach spaces) is continuous if and only if its graph is closed.

See also Almost open linear map Barrelled space – Topological vector space Closed graph Closed linear operator Discontinuous linear map Kakutani fixed-point theorem – On when a function f: S→Pow(S) on a compact nonempty convex subset S⊂ℝⁿ has a fixed point Open mapping theorem (functional analysis) – Condition for a linear operator to be open Ursescu theorem – Generalization of closed graph, open mapping, and uniform boundedness theorem Webbed space – Space where open mapping and closed graph theorems hold Zariski's main theorem – Theorem of algebraic geometry and commutative algebra Notes References ^ Rudin 1991, p. 51-52. ^ Rudin 1991, p. 50. ^ Narici & Beckenstein 2011, pp. 459–483. ^ Munkres 2000, pp. 163–172. ^ Aliprantis, Charlambos; Kim C. Border (1999). "Chapter 17". Infinite Dimensional Analysis: A Hitchhiker's Guide (3rd ed.). Springer. ^ Schaefer & Wolff 1999, p. 78. ^ Trèves (2006), p. 173 Bibliography Bourbaki, Nicolas (1987) [1981]. Topological Vector Spaces: Chapters 1–5. Éléments de mathématique. Translated by Eggleston, H.G.; Madan, S. Berlin New York: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-13627-4. OCLC 17499190. Folland, Gerald B. (1984), Real Analysis: Modern Techniques and Their Applications (1st ed.), John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-0-471-80958-6 Jarchow, Hans (1981). Locally convex spaces. Stuttgart: B.G. Teubner. ISBN 978-3-519-02224-4. OCLC 8210342. Köthe, Gottfried (1983) [1969]. Topological Vector Spaces I. Grundlehren der mathematischen Wissenschaften. Vol. 159. Translated by Garling, D.J.H. New York: Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-3-642-64988-2. MR 0248498. OCLC 840293704. Munkres, James R. (2000). Topology (Second ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc. ISBN 978-0-13-181629-9. OCLC 42683260. Narici, Lawrence; Beckenstein, Edward (2011). Topological Vector Spaces. Pure and applied mathematics (Second ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 978-1584888666. OCLC 144216834. Rudin, Walter (1991). Functional Analysis. International Series in Pure and Applied Mathematics. Vol. 8 (Second ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math. ISBN 978-0-07-054236-5. OCLC 21163277. Schaefer, Helmut H.; Wolff, Manfred P. (1999). Topological Vector Spaces. GTM. Vol. 8 (Second ed.). New York, NY: Springer New York Imprint Springer. ISBN 978-1-4612-7155-0. OCLC 840278135. Trèves, François (2006) [1967]. Topological Vector Spaces, Distributions and Kernels. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-45352-1. OCLC 853623322. Wilansky, Albert (2013). Modern Methods in Topological Vector Spaces. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, Inc. ISBN 978-0-486-49353-4. OCLC 849801114. Zălinescu, Constantin (30 July 2002). Convex Analysis in General Vector Spaces. River Edge, N.J. London: World Scientific Publishing. ISBN 978-981-4488-15-0. MR 1921556. OCLC 285163112 – via Internet Archive. "Proof of closed graph theorem". PlanetMath. show vte Functional analysis (topics – glossary) show vte Topological vector spaces (TVSs) Categories: Theorems in functional analysis

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